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  Literature List


PNF Books:

  1. Knott M,Voss DE: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - patterns and techniques 2nd edition. New York Haper & Row publishers 1968
  2. Voss DE, Jonta MK, Meyers BJ: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - patterns and techniques 3rd edition. New York Haper & Row publishers 1985
  3. Sullivan PE, Markos PD, Minor MA: PNF- Ein weg zum therapeutischen Üben. Stuttgart, Fischer Verlag 1985.
  4. Buck M, Beckers D, Adler S: PNF in Practice. Springer Verlag / publishers 2008.
  5. Hedin- Anden S: PNF Grundverfahren und funtionelles Training. München, Urban & Fischer1994
  6. Horst R: Motorisches Strategietraining und PNF. Stuttgart, Thieme 2005
  7. Horst R: Therapiekonzepte in der Physiotherapie-PNF. Stuttgart, Thieme 2008


Literature list, direct PNF related:

  1. Cornelius WL, Jensen RL, Odell ME: Effects of PNF stretching phases on acute arterial blood pressure. Can. Jo. Appl Physiology 1995 (2)222-229
  2. Nitz J, Burke B. A study of the facilitation of respiration in myotonic dystrophy. Physiotherapy research international 2002 (4) 228-238
  3. Yigiter K, Sener G, Erbahceci F, BayarK, Ülger ÖG, Akodogan S: A comparison of traditional prosthetic training versus PNF resistive gait training with trans-femoral amputees. Prosthetics  and orthotics international 2002 (26) 213-217
  4. Mirek e, ea. Przydatnosc trójwymiarowej analizy lokomocji dla usprawniania ruchowego metoda PNF chorych na chorobe Parkinsona. Neurol. Neurochir. Poland 2003 (5) 89-102
  5. Wang RY. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in case of patients with hemiplegia of long and short duration. Physical Therapy 1994 (12) 25-32
  6. Reichel HS PNF: Gangschulung. Sportverletzung, sportschaden 1996 (10) A11-A20
  7. Luke C, Dodd KJ, Brock K: Outcomes of the Bobath concept on upper limb recovery follwing stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004 (18) 888-898
  8. Ernst E: A review of stroke rehabilitation and physiotherapy. Stroke 1990 (21) 1081-1085
  9. Duncan P ea.: A Randomized, controlled pilot study of a home - based exercise program for individuals with mild and moderate stroke. Stroke 1998 (29) 2055-2060
  10. Duncan P ea. RCT of therapeutic exercise in subacute stroke. Stroke 2003 (34) 2173-2180
  11. Pohl M, Mehrholz J, Ritschel C, Rückriem S: Speed dependent treadmill training in ambulatory hemiparetic stroke patients : A RCT. Stroke 2002 (33) 553-558
  12. Kraft GH, Fitts SS, Hammond MC: Techniques to improve function of the arm and hand in chronic hemiplegia. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabilitation 1992(3) 220-227
  13. Shimura K, Kasai T: Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on the initiation of voluntary movement and motor evoked potentials in upper limb muscles. Human movement science 2002 (1) 101-113
  14. KofotolisN, Vrabas IS, Vamvakoudis E, Papanikolaou A, Mandroukas K: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training induced alterations in muscle fiber type and cross sectional area. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005 (3):e11.
  15. Arai M, ea : Effects of the use of cross-education to the affected side through various resistive exercises of the sound side and settings of the length of the affected muscles. Hiroshima journal of medical science 2001 (3):65-73
  16. Marek SM ea. : Acute effects of static and PNF stretching on muscle strength and power output. Journal of athletic training 2005 (2) 94-103
  17. Myers JB, Lephart SM: The role of the sensorimotor system in the athletic shoulder Journal of athletic training 2000 (3) 351-363
  18. Epifanov VA,  Shuliakovskii V V: The rehabilitative therapy of patients with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine and manifestations of hyper mobility by means of therapeutic physical exercise. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2000 (1):8-11.(Russian)
  19. Schneider F, Laps K, Wagner S: Chronic patello femoral pain syndrome: alternatives for cases of therapy resistance. Knee surgery sports traumatology arthroscopy 2001 Sep;9(5):290-295
  20. Klein DA, Stone WJ, ea. PNF training and physical function in assisted living older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity 2002 (10) 476-488
  21. Godges JJ, Matsen-Bell M, Thorpe D, Shah D:  The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach. Journal of orthopedics sports and Physical Therapy 2003 (12) 713-718
  22. Kofotolis N, Eleftherios K: Effects of two 4-week PNF programs on muscle endurance, flexibility, and functional performance in women with CLBP. Physical Therapy 2006 (7) 1001-1012
  23. Church JB, Wiggins MS, Moode FM, Crist R: Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance  Jo. Strenght cond. Research 2001 (3):332-336
  24. Mc Mullen J, Uhl TL: A kinetic chain approach for shoulder rehabilitation. Journal of athletic training 2000 (3) 329-337
  25. Johnson GS, Johnson VS. The application of the principles and procedures of PNF for the care of lumbar spinal instabilities. The Journal of manual and Manipulative therapy 2002 (2) 83-105
  26. Magarey ME, Jones MA. Dynamic evaluation and early management of altered motor control around the shoulder complex. Manual Therapy 2003 (4) 195-206
  27. Sarburg PR, Schrader JW: Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine: A Reassessment. Journal of athletic training 1997 (1):34-39.
  28. Weerapong P, Hume PA, Kolt GS: Stretching: mechanisms and benefits for sport performance and injury prevention. Physical Therapy Reviews 2004 (9) 189-206
  29. Chalmers G: Re-examination of the possible role of Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle reflexes in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation muscle stretching. Sports biomechanics 2004 (1) 159-183
  30. Funk DC, Swank AM, Mikla BM, Fagan TA, Farr BK: Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: a comparison of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2003 (3):489-492
  31. Wenos DL, Konin JG: Controlled warm-up intensity enhances hip range of motion. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2004 (3):529-533
  32. Davis DS, Ashby PE, Mc Cale KL, Mc Quain JA, Wine JM: The effectiveness of 3 stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility using consistent stretching parameters. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2005 (1):27-32.
  33. Feland JB, Marin HN: Effect of sub maximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. British journal of sports medicine 2004
  34. Schuback B, Hooper J, Salisburg L: A comparison of a self stretch incorporating PNF components and a therapist applied PNF technique on hamstring flexibility. Physiotherapy 2004 (3) 151-157
  35. Rowlands AV, Marginson VF, Lee J: Chronic flexibility gains: effect of isometric contraction duration during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Research Quarterly Exercise and sports 2003 (1):47-51.
  36. Bonnar BP, Deivert RG, Gould TE: The relationship between isometric contraction durations during hold-relax stretching and improvement of hamstring flexibility. Journal sports medicine and physical fitness 2004 (3) 258-261
  37. Deccicco PV, Fisher FM: The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on shoulder range of motion in overhand athletes. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 2005 (2):183-187.
  38. Moore MA, Kulkulka CG: Depression of Hoffmann reflexes following voluntary contraction and implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy. Physical Therapy 1991 (4):321-329; discussion 329-33.
  39. Ferber R, Gravelle DC, Osternig LR. Effect of PNF stretch techniques on trained and untrained older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity 2002 (10) 132-142
  40. Ferber R, Osternig LR, Gravelle DC: Effect of PNF stretch techniques on knee flexor muscle EMG activity in older adults. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology 2002 (12) 391-397
  41. Olivo SA, Magee DJ: Electromyographic assessment of the activity of the masticatory using the agonist contract - antagonist relax technique (AC) and contract - relax technique (CR). Manual therapy 2006 (2) 136-145
  42. Carter AM, Kinzey SJ, Chitwood LF, Cole JL: PNF decreases muscle activity during the stretch reflex in selected posterior thigh muscles. Journal of sport rehabilitation 2000 (9) 269-278
  43. Barros Ribeiro Cilento M: Evaluation of the efficacy of train protocols of the sit to stand movement, M. Cilento. Fisioterapi Brasil (6) 2006
  44. Olivo SA, Magee DJ: Electromyogrphic activity of the masticatory and cervical muscles during resisted jaw opening movement. Journal of oral rehabilitation 2007 (34) 184-194
  45. Rees SS, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, McLachlan KA, Coutts AJ: Effects of PNF stretching on stiffness and force producing characteristics of the ankle in active women. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2007 (2) 572-577
  46. Bradley PS, Olsen PD, Portas MD: The effect of static, ballistic and PNF stretching on vertical jump performance Journal of strength and conditioning research 2007 (1) 223-226
  47. Gabriel DA, Kamen G, Frost G: Neural adaptations to resistive exercise, mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Med 2006 (2) 183-189
  48. Sharman MJ, Cresswell AG, Riek S: Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching, mechanisms and clinical implications. Sports Med 2006 (11) 929-939
  49. Carlson M, Hadlock T: Physical Therapist Management following rotator cuff repair for a patient with postpolio syndrome, Case Report. Physical Therapy 2007 (87) 179-192
  50. Namura M, Motoyoshi M, Namura Y, Shimizu N: The effect of PNF training on the facial profile. Journal of oral science 2008 (1) 45-51
  51. Sato H, Maruyama H: The effects of indirect treatment of PNF. J. Physical therapy science 2009, 21, 189-193
  52. Mathieu NN, Cools A, De Wilde , Boon M, Witvrouw E: Effect of PNF stretching on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties. Scandinavian journal of medicine &science in sports 2009 (19) 4,553-560
  53. Luterek M, Baranowski M, Zakiewicz W, Biel A, Pedizisz P: PNF based rehabilitation in patients with severe haemophilic arthropathy-case study. Ortopedia traumatologia rehabilitcja 2009 (11) 3, (6) 280-289
  54. Caplan N, Rogers R, Parr MK, Hayes PR: The effect of PNF and static stretch training on running mechanics. J of Strength and Conditioning Research 2009 23 (4) 1175-1180
  55. Youdas JW, Haeflinger KM, Kreun MK, Holloway AM, Kramer CM, Hollman JH: The efficacy of two modified PNF stretching techniques in subjects with reduced hamstring muscle length. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2010 26 (4) 240-250
  56. Kofotolis ND, Kellis E: Cross-training effects of a Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise programme on knee musculature. Physical Therapy in Sport 8 (2007) 109-116
  57. Pasiut SA, Banach M, Longawa K, Windak F: Stroke rehabilitation conducted by PNF method, with and without the application of botulinum toxin- case reports. Medical rehabilitation 2005 (9) 1, 15-24
  58. Westwater-Wood S, Adams N, Kerry R. The use of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in physiotherapy practice Physical Therapy Reviews 2010 VOL.15. (1) 23-28
  59. Youdas J W, Haeflinger K M, Kreun M K, Holloway A M, Kramer C M, Hollman J H. The efficacy of two modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques in subjects with reduced hamstring muscle length. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 2010, 26(4):240-250.
  60. Morley J J, Perrault T. Chiropractic Management of Myositis Ossificans Traumatica: A Case Report Journal of the American Chiropractic Association 2012, 4, 16-24
  61. Chow TPY, Ng GYF. Active, passive and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching are comparable in improving the knee flexion range in people with total knee replacement: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2010; 24: 911-918
  62. Wolny T, Saulizc E, Gnat R, Kokosz M. Butler's neuromobilizations combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation are effective in reducing of upper limb sensory in late-stage stroke subjects: a three-group randomized trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2010; 24: 810-821
  63. Moyano FR, Valenza MC, Martin L M, Caballero YC, Jimenez EG, Demet GV Effectiveness of different exercises and stretching physiotherapy on pain and movement in patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2012 27(5) 409- 417
  64. Hindle KB, Whitcomb TJ, Briggs WO, Hong J. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function. Journal of Human Kinetics 31/2012, 105-113
  65. Khanal D, Singaravelan M, Khatri KM. Effectiveness of Pelvic Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Technique on Facilitation of Trunk Movement in Hemiparetic Stroke Patients. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 2013, 3(6,)29-37
  66. Sahay P, et al., Efficacy of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques versus traditional prosthetic training for improving ambulatory function in transtibial amputees, Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, 2013
  67. Ribeiro T, Britto H, Oliveira D, Silva E, Galvio E, Lindquist A. Effects of treadmill training with partial body weight support and the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on hemiparetic gait: a comparative study. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2012,48, 1-11
  68. Maicki T, Trabka R, Szwarczyk W, Wilk Franzcuk M, Figura B. Analysis of therapy results in patients with cervical spine pain according to PNF concept and elements of manual therapy. MEDSPORTPRESS, 2012; 3(4);12, 263-273
  69. Gontijo LB, Pererla PD, Neves CDC, Santos AP, Castro Dutra Machado D, Vale Bastos, VH. Evaluation of Strength and Irradiated Movement Pattern Resulting from Trunk Motions of the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation. Rehabilitation Research and Practice Volume 2012, Article ID 281937, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2012/281937


 Literature list EBP related:

  1. Maher CG, Sherrington C, Elkins M, Herbert RD, Moseley AM: Challenges for EBP: Accesing and interpreting High-Quality evidence on therapy. Physical therapy, 2004 (7) 644-654
  2. Straus SE, Sacket DL: Getting research findings into practice. BMJ 1998 (8) 339-342
  3. IPNFA, educational committee: Course curriculum content, teaching units.
  4. Herbert R, Jamtvedt G, Mead J, Hagen KB: Outcome measures measure outcomes, not effects of intervention. Australian journal of physiotherapy 2005 3-4 (editional)


Literature list; publications from IPNFA members

  1. Bertinchamp U. "Concept PNF: facilitation proprioceptive neuromusculaire (concept Kabat-Knott- Voss)", KInésithérapie-Médecine physique- Readaptation ( 26-075-B -10) Doi: 10.1016/S1283-0887 (10)51680-3
  2. Smedes F, PNF beter (be)grijpen. FysioPraxis 2001 (12) 42-46. (Better understanding of PNF)
  3. Smedes F, Functioneel oefenen, de betekenis van het functioneel oefenen binnen het PNF concept. FysioPraxis 2002 (11) 9-11 (functional exercise, the meaning for PNF)
  4. Smedes F, Breed denken in de fysiotherapie, op zoek naar de overeenkomsten in de diverse fysiotherapeutische methoden. Fysiopraxis 2004 (8) 34-37 (A search for similarities in physiotherapie)
  5. Smedes F, Oefentherapie met het PNF concept: een zinvolle behandelstrategie. Fysiopraxis 2006 (6) 22-27+ internet (Exercise therapy with the PNF concept a useful therapy strategy)
  6. Smedes F, Is there support for the PNF concept, a search on digital databases. downloads 2006
  7. Smedes F, Komt een vrouw bij de fysiotherapeut. Case report. Fysiopraxis 2009 (1) 42-46+ internet (Comes a woman to the physiotherapist. Case report)


Literature list cross education /irradiation related:

  1. Mastalerz A, Wozniak A, Urbanik C, Lutoslawska G. Contralateral effects after power training of isolated muscles in women. Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics 2010 (12) 2,65-71
  2. Caroll TJ, Herbert RD, Munn J, Lee M, Gandevia SC. Contralateral effects of unilateral strength training: evidence and possible mechanisms. J Appl Physiol 2006,101:1514-1522
  3. Munn J, Herbert RD, Gandevia SC. Contralateral effects of unilateral resistance training: a meta-analysis J Appl Physiol 2004,96:1861-1866
  4. Zhou S, Cross education and neuromuscular adaptations during early stage of strength training. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness 2003, (1),1, 54-60
  5. Shima N, Ishida K, Katayama K, Morotome Y, Sato Y, Miayamura M. Cross education of muscular strength during unilateral resistance training and detraining Eur JAppl Physiol 2002,86: 287-294
  6. Lee M, Carroll TJ. Cross Education Possible Mechanisms for the Contralateral Effects of Unilateral Resistance Training. Sports Med 2007; 37 (1): 1-14
  7. Lee M, Gandevia SC, Carroll TJ. Unilateral strength training increases voluntary activation of the opposite untrained limb. Clinical Neurophysiology 2009, 120, 802-808


Literature list Motor learning related:

  1. Charlton JL, Motor control issues and clinical applications. Physiotherapie theory and practice 1994 (10) 185-190
  2. Corcos DM, Strategies underlying the control of disordered movement. Physical Therapy 1991 (71) 25-38
  3. Frank JS, Earl M, Coördination of posture and movement. Physical Therapy 1990 (12) 109-117
  4. Lee TD, Swanson LR, Hall AL, What is repeated in a repetition? Effects of practice conditions on motor skill acquisition. Physical Therapy 1991 (71) 150-156
  5. Marks R, Peripheral mechanisms underlying the signalling of joint position. NZ Journal of Physiotherapie 1997 April
  6. Mulder T, A process- oriented model of human motor behaviour: toward a theory-based rehabilitation approuch. Physical Therapy 1991 (2) 82-89.
  7. Winstein CJ, Knowledge of results and motor learning - Implications for physical therapy. Physical Threapy 1991 (71) 140-149.
  8. Cauraugh J H, Kim S B. Stroke motor recovery: active neuromuscular stimulation and repetitive practice schedules. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1562-1566
  9. Krakauer JW. Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation. Current Opinion in Neurology 2006, 19:84-90
  10. Latash ML, Levin MF, Scholz JP, Schöner G. Motor control theories and their applications. Medicina (Kaunas) 2010;46(6):382-92


Literature list Bio-mechanics related:

  1. Comerford MJ, Gibbons SGT, Kraft versus Stabilität Teil 1 und 2 Manuelle Therapie 2002 (5,6) 13-20.
  2. Grzebellus M, Schäfer C, Irradiation aus biomechanischer Sicht. Krankengymnastik Zeitschrift für Physiotherapeuten 1998 (9) 1489-1494
  3. Hodges PW, Richardson CA, Inefficient muscular stabilization of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain. Spine 1996 (22) 2640-2650.
  4. McQuade KJ, Smidt GL, Dynamic scapulohumeral Rythem: the effects of external resistance during elevation of the arm in the scapular plane. JOSPT 1998 (2) 125-131
  5. O'Sullivan PB, Twomey LT, Allison GT, Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylosis or spondylisthesis. Spine 1997 (24) 2959-2967.
  6. Stiene HA, Brosky T, Reinking MF, Nyland J, Mason BM, A comparison of closed kinetic chain and isokinetic joint isolation exercise in patients with patellofemoral dysfunction. JOSPT 1996 (3) 136- 141.


Literature list spasticity related:

  1. Malhotra S; Pandyan AD; Rossewilliam S; Roffe C; Hermens H. Spasticity and contractures at the wrist after stroke:time course of development and their association with functional recovery of the upper limb. Clinical Rehabilitation 2011; 25: 184-191
  2. Yelnik AP, Simon O, Parratte B, Gracies JM. How to clinically assess and treat muscle overactivity in spastic paresis. J. Rehabil. Med. 2010;42; 801-807
  3. Malhotra S, Pandyan AD, Day CR, Jones PW, Hermens H. Spasticity, an impairment that is poorly defined and poorly measured. Clinical rehabilitation 2009; 23: 651-658
  4. Bovend'Eerdt TJ, Newman M, Barker K,Dawes H, Minelli C, Wade DT. The effects of stretching in spasticity: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89:1395-406.
  5. Malhotra S, Cousins E, Ward A, Day C, Jones P, Roffe C, Pandyan A. An investigation into the agreement between clinical, biomechanical and neurophysiological measures of spasticity. Clinical rehabilitation 2008; 22; 1105-1115
  6. Petropoulou KB; Panourias JG; Rapidi CA; Sakas DE. The phenomenon of spasticity: a pathophysiological and clinical introduction to neuromodulation therapies. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2007 97(1) 137-144
  7. Sheehan JL, Winzeler-Mercay U, Mudie MH. A randomized controlled pilot study to obtain the best estimate of the size of the effect of a thermoplastic resting splint on spasticity in the stroke-affected wrist and fingers. Clinical rehabilitation 2006;20;1032-1037.
  8. Patrick E, Ada L. The tardieu scale differentiates contracture from spasticity whereas the Ashworth Scale is confounded by it. Clinical rehabilitation 2006; 20; 173-182
  9. Burridge JH, Wood DE, Hermens HJ, Voerman GE, Johnson GR, Wijck van F, Platz T, Gregoric M, Hitschcock R, Pandyan AD. Theoretical and methodological considerations in the measurement of spasticity. Disability and Rehabilitation 2005; 27(1/2): 69-80
  10. Gracies JM. Pathophysiology of spastic paresis. I: paresis and soft tissue changes. Muscle&Nerve 2005 (31), 535-551
  11. Lieber RL, Steinman S, Barash IA, Chambers H. Structural and functional changes in spastic skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve 2004; 29; 615-627
  12. Pandyan AD; Cameron M; Powel J; Stott DJ; Granat MH. Contractures in the post-stroke wrist: a pilot study of its time course of development and its association with upper limb recovery Clinical Rehabilitation 2003; 17: 88-95
  13. Bohannon RW, Smith MB. Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth Scale of muscle spasticity. Physical Therapy 1987; 67; 206-207


Literature list gait related

  1. Pamela W Duncan ea. Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Rehabilitation after Stroke N Engl J Med 2011;364:2026-36
  2. Kang HK, Kim Y, Chung Y, Hwang S, Effects of treadmitt training with optic flow on balance and gait in individuals following stroke: randomized controlled trials. Clinical Rehabilitation 2011, 26,(3), 246-255

Literature list Robotics related

  1. Lo AC, Guarino PD, Richards LG, et al. Robot-Assisted Therapy for Long-Term Upper-Limb Impairment after Stroke. n engl j med 2010, 362;19, 1772-1783
  2. Morales R, Badesa FJ, Garcia-Aracil N, Sabater JM, Pérez-Vidal C. Pneumatic robotic systems for upper limb rehabilitation. Med Biol Eng Comput , 2011, 49:1145-1156


Literature list scoliosis related

  1. Al-Eisa E, Egan D, Deluzio K, Wassersug R, 2006: Effects of pelvic skeletal asymmetry on trunk movement. Spine;31(3):71-79.
  2. Asher MA, Burton DC, 1999: A concept of idiopathic scoliosis deformities as imperfecta torsion(s). Clin Orthop; Jul; (364):11-25.
  3.  Burwell RG, Dangerfield PH, 1992: Pathogenesis and assessment in scoliosis. Surgery of  the Spine; Section 5: Chapter 19: 365.
  4. Burwell RG, 2003: Aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current concepts. Pediatr Rehabil;6 (3-4):137-170.
  5. Charlebois M, Mac-Thiong JM, Huot MP, de Guise JA, Skalli W, Labelle H,2002: Relation between the pelvis and sagittal profile in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: the influence of curve type. Stud. Health Technol Inform; 91: 140-143.
  6. Chockalingam N, Dangerfield PH, Rahmatalla A, Achmed el-N, Cochrane T, 2004: Assessment of ground reaction force during scoliotic gait. Eur Spine J; 13(8): 750-754.
  7. Dickson RA, 1992: The scientific basis of treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Acta Orthop Belgica; 58(1): 107.
  8. Faro FD, Marks MC, Pawelek J, Newton PO, 2004: Evaluation of a functional position for lateral radiograph acquisition in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine; Oct 15, 29(20): 2284-2289.
  9. Giakas G, Baltzopoulos V, Dangerfield PH, Dorgan JC, Dalmira S, 1996: Comparison of gait patterns between healthy and scoliotic patients using time and frequency domain analysis of ground reaction forces. Spine, 21(19):2235-2242.
  10. Graham EJ, Lenke LG, Lowe TG. Betz RR, Bridwell KW, Kong Y, Blanke K, 2000: Prospective pulmonary function evaluation following open thoracotomy for anterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine: Sep 15; 25(18): 2319-2325.
  11. Greiner KA, 2002: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Radiologic decision making. American Family Physican; May 1:1817-1822.
  12. Gram MC, Hasan ., 1999: The spinal curve in standing and sitting postures in children with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine; Jan 15; 24(2): 200-201.
  13. Grivas TB, Dangas S, Samelis P, Maziotou C, 2002: Lateral spinal profile in school-screening referrals with or without late onset idiopathic scoliosis 10 degrees-20 degrees. Stud Health Technol Inform; 91:25-31.
  14. Grivas TB, Vasiliadis ES., Koufopoulos G, Segos D, Triantafyllopoulos G, Mouzakis V, 2006: Study of trunk asymmetry in normal children and adolescent. Scoliosis 1:19.
  15. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Troyanovich SJ, 1998a.: Three-dimensional spinal coupling mechanics: Part I. A review of the literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther; Feb; 21(2):101-13.
  16. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Troyanovich SJ, 1998b: Three-dimensional spinal coupling mechanics: Part II. Implications for chiropractic theories and practice.
    J Manipulative Physiol Ther; Mar-Apr; 21(3):177-186. .        
  17. Harrison DE, Cailliet R, Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Troyanovich SJ, Coleman RR, 1999.: Lumbar coupling during lateral translations of the thoracic cage relative to a fixed pelvis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon); Dec; 14(10):704-709.
  18. Hides JA, Stokes MJ, Saide M, Jull GA, Cooper DH,1994: Evidence of lumbar multifidius muscles wasting ipsilateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. Spine; 19(2):165-177.
  19. Hodges PW, Richardson CA,1996: Inefficient muscular stabilization of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain. A motor control evaluation of transversus abdominis. Spine; 21(22): 2640-2650.
  20. Hodges PW, Richardson CA, 1997: Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Physical Therapy; 77:132-144.
  21. Hopf C, Scheidecker M, Steffan K, Bodem F, Eysel P, 1998: Gait analysis in idiopathic scoliosis before and after surgery: a comparison of the pre- and postoperative muscle activation pattern. Eur Spine J; 7(1):6-11
  22. Karski T, 2006: Recent observations in the biomechanical etiology of so-called idiopathic scoliosis. New classification of spinal deformity-I-st, II-nd and III-rd etiopathological groups. Stud Health Techno Inform; 123: 473-482.
  23. Kotwicki T, 2002: Sagittal and transversal plane deformity in thoracic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform; 91:251-256.
  24. Kotwicki T, 2007: Badanie zakresu ruchu w stawach biodrowych - modyfikacja badania i wyniki pacjentów ze skoliozą. Ann Acad Med Siles; 61,1.
  25. Kramers-de Quervain IA, Müller R, Stacoff A, Grob D, Stüsi E, 2004: Gait analysis in patient with idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J; Aug; 13(5): 449-456.
  26. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Harms J, Bridwell KH, Clements DH, Lowe TG, Blanke K, 2001: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a new classification to determine extent of spinal arthrodesis.  J Bone Joint Surg Am.; 83A:1169-1181.
  27. Lenke LG, Betz RR, Clements D, Merola A, Haher T, Lowe T, Newton P, Bridwell KH, Blanke K, 2002: Curve prevalence of a new classification of operative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: how it organizes curve patterns as a template to perform selective fusions of the spine. Spine; 27: 604-611.
  28. Lim HH, Ong CH, 2001: Dynamic measurements of axial vertebral rotation and rotational flexibility in scoliosis by fluoroscopic method. Med J Malaysia; Jun; 56 Suppl C: 41-45.
  29.  Mac-Thiong JM, Berthonnaud E, Dimar JR, Betz RR, Labelle H, 2004: Sagittal alignment of the spine and pelvis during growth. Spine; Aug 1; 29(15):
  30.  Mallau S, Bollini G, Jouve JL, Assaiante C, 2007: Locomotor skills and balance strategies in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine; 32(1):14-22.
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